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Given such new freedoms, many Salafists returned to Tunisia and became politicized, especially after Ennahda’s compromises and retreat from incorporating Sharia law into the new constitution. With Ennahda rebranding and the abandonment of political Islam, Tunisian Islamists became disillusioned. Moreover, six decades of top-down secularization and aggressive modernization efforts, including repression of religious actors, have left religious citizens marginalized. Ideologically, the events of the last six years in Tunisia have created a vacuum for youth who espouse Islamist beliefs, and they are now left vulnerable for Salafist avenues.

Geopolitics also play an important role in Tunisia, where politics show Sneakers for Women On Sale Black Suede leather 2017 25 3 35 4 45 55 6 7 75 Hogan Black Suede leather 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5.5 6 7 7.5 Hogan 2017 8r4oy7
. Most political processes take place in the coastal and urban areas, while the inner and southern parts of Tunisia remain neglected and vulnerable to influence of militant Salafists. This regional divide was apparent in the results of the elections. The cosmopolitan secular cities saw a surge in liberal votes, whereas the conservative interior went for like-minded parties. The geography of rural and mountainous areas in Tunisia also presents a vulnerability easily exploited by militant groups from Tunisia, Libya, and Algeria, areas that are Francy hitop sneakers Brown Golden Goose tbrQ90gf
to becoming militant training camps.

Moreover, regional divides in Tunisia present unequal distribution of reforms. Despite some reforms to the heavy-handed police system, police brutality remains common especially in the poor and rural areas of Tunisia where militants are active. There is still lingering distrust toward armed authorities in places such as Kasserine as well as fear of the militias. Imprisonment also risks radicalization, creating a situation similar to that of “ bow detail jewelled slippers Black Miu Miu A5oONOaSl
,” where incarcerated ISIL leaders initially met.

A Difficult Road Ahead

Although Tunisia has avoided large-scale violence and chaos, the country’s stability and successful transition are judged prematurely. Some of the steps the country has taken constitute successes, but some remain as challenges that Tunisia has yet to address and resolve; these include corruption, police abuse, economic stagnation, inequalities, ideological polarization, and violent extremism.

In addition to boosting economic progress and opportunities and restoring confidence in government and the democratic process, the struggle for reconciling the Islamist-secularist divide in Tunisia is far from over. While members of Nidaa Tounes pledged to fight terrorism and attempted to place restrictions on mosques, such efforts have not garnered consensus, especially by Ennahda members, and were viewed as oppositional to Islamism. Ennahda leader Rached Ghannouchi stated that he would only consider as criminals groups that use violence and function outside the rule of law, but not groups that promote violence and illegal ideologies.

Here’s how it works:

For each new sample, the best-candidate algorithm generates a fixed number of candidates, shown in gray. (Here, that number is 10.) Each candidate is chosen uniformly from the sampling area.

The best candidate , shown in red, is the one that is farthest away from all previous samples, shown in black. The distance from each candidate to the closest sample is shown by the associated line and circle: notice that there are no other samples inside the gray or red circles. After all candidates are created and distances measured, the best candidate becomes the new sample, and the remaining candidates are discarded.

Now here’s the code:

As I explained the algorithm above, I will let the code stand on its own. (And the purpose of this essay is to let you study code through visualization, besides.) But I will clarify a few details:

The external numCandidates defines the number of candidates to create per sample. This parameter lets you trade-off speed with quality. The lower the number of candidates, the faster it runs. Conversely, the higher the number of candidates, the better the sampling quality.

The distance function is simple geometry:

The findClosest function returns the closest sample to the current candidate. This can be done by brute force, iterating over every existing sample. Or you can accelerate the search, say by using a quadtree . Brute force is simple to implement but very slow (quadratic time, in O-notation ). The accelerated approach is much faster, but more work to implement.

Speaking of trade-offs: when deciding whether to use an algorithm, we evaluate it not in a vacuum but against other approaches. And as a practical matter it is useful to weigh the complexity of implementation — how long it takes to implement, how difficult it is to maintain —against its performance and quality.

The simplest alternative is uniform random sampling:

It looks like this:

Uniform random is pretty terrible. There is both severe under- and oversampling: many samples are densely-packed, even overlapping, leading to large empty areas. (Uniform random sampling also represents the lower bound of quality for the best-candidate algorithm, as when the number of candidates per sample is set to one.)

Dots patterns are one way of showing sample pattern quality, but not the only way. For example, we can attempt to simulate vision under different sampling strategies by coloring an image according to the color of the closest sample. This is, in effect, a Voronoi diagram of the samples where each cell is colored by the associated sample.

What does The Starry Night look like through 6,667 uniform random samples?

Hold down the mouse to compare to the original.

The lackluster quality of this approach is again apparent. The cells vary widely in size, as expected from the uneven sample distribution. Detail has been lost because densely-packed samples (small cells) are underutilized. Meanwhile, sparse samples (large cells) introduce noise by exaggerating rare colors, such as the pink star in the bottom-left.

Although utilitarianism is usually thought to start with Cushnie Et Ochs Woman Cutout Ribbedknit Mini Dress Midnight Blue Size L Cushnie et Ochs UP6RcZn
, there were earlier writers who presented theories that were strikingly similar. In An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals , David Hume writes: [13]

In all determinations of morality , this circumstance of public utility is ever principally in view; and wherever disputes arise, either in philosophy or common life, concerning the bounds of duty, the question cannot, by any means, be decided with greater certainty, than by ascertaining, on any side, the true interests of mankind. If any false opinion, embraced from appearances, has been found to prevail; as soon as farther experience and sounder reasoning have given us juster notions of human affairs, we retract our first sentiment, and adjust anew the boundaries of moral good and evil.

Hume studied the works of, and corresponded with, Francis Hutcheson , and it was he who first introduced a key utilitarian phrase. In An Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (1725), Hutcheson says [14] when choosing the most moral action, virtue is in proportion to the number of people a particular action brings happiness to. In the same way, moral , or , is proportionate to the number of people made to suffer. The best action is the one that procures the greatest happiness of the greatest numbers—and the worst is the one that causes the most misery.

In the first three editions of the book, Hutcheson included various mathematical algorithms " compute the Morality of any Actions." In this, he pre-figured the hedonic calculus of Bentham.

Some claim that John Gay developed the first systematic theory of utilitarian ethics. [15] In Concerning the Fundamental Principle of Virtue or Morality (1731), Gay argues that: [16]

happiness, private happiness, is the proper or ultimate end of all our actions… each particular action may be said to have its proper and peculiar end…(but)…. they still tend or ought to tend to something farther; as is evident from hence, viz. that a man may ask and expect a reason why either of them are pursued: now to ask the reason of any action or pursuit, is only to enquire into the end of it: but to expect a reason, i.e. an end, to be assigned for an ultimate end, is absurd. To ask why I pursue happiness, will admit of no other answer than an explanation of the terms.

This pursuit of happiness is given a theological basis: [17]

Now it is evident from the nature of God, viz. his being infinitely happy in himself from all eternity, and from his goodness manifested in his works, that he could have no other design in creating mankind than their happiness; and therefore he wills their happiness; therefore the means of their happiness: therefore that my behaviour, as far as it may be a means of the happiness of mankind, should be such…thus the will of God is the immediate criterion of Virtue, and the happiness of mankind the criterion of the wilt of God; and therefore the happiness of mankind may be said to be the criterion of virtue, but once removed…(and)… I am to do whatever lies in my power towards promoting the happiness of mankind.



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Researchers have discovered malware so stealthy it remained hidden for six years despite infecting at least 100 computers worldwide.

Slingshot—which gets its name from text found inside some of the recovered malware samples—is among the most advanced attack platforms ever discovered, which means it was likely developed on behalf of a well-resourced country, researchers with Moscow-based Kaspersky Lab reported Friday. The sophistication of the malware rivals that of Regin—the advanced backdoor that infected Belgian telecom Belgacom and other high-profile targets for years—and Project Sauron , a separate piece of malware suspected of being developed by a nation-state that also remained hidden for years.

"The discovery of Slingshot reveals another complex ecosystem where multiple components work together in order to provide a very flexible and well-oiled cyber-espionage platform," Kaspersky Lab researchers wrote in a 25-page report published Friday. "The malware is highly advanced, solving all sorts of problems from a technical perspective and often in a very elegant way, combining older and newer components in a thoroughly thought-through, long-term operation, something to expect from a top-notch well-resourced actor."

The researchers still don't know precisely how Slingshot initially infected all its targets. In several cases, however, Slingshot operators got access to routers made by Latvian manufacturer MikroTik and planted a malicious code in it. Specifics of the router technique still aren't known, but they involve using a MikroTik configuration utility called Winbox to download dynamic link library files from the router's file system. One of the files, ipv4.dll, is a malicious download agent created by the Slingshot developers. Winbox transfers ipv4.dll to the target's computer, loads it into memory, and executes it.

In a Slingshot FAQ , the researchers wrote:

This DLL then connects to a hardcoded IP and port (in every cases we saw it was the router's IP address), downloads the other malicious components, and runs them.

To run its code in kernel mode in the most recent versions of operating systems that have Driver Signature Enforcement, Slingshot loads signed vulnerable drivers and runs its own code through their vulnerabilities.

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